성적으로 학대 한 소년이 성범죄를 저지하기 위하여 계속 수행?
이 페이지를 서면으로, 우리는 연구의 증거라고 우리에게 이야기하는 것이 전면 정리되고 싶어 성적 학대 하지 않습니다 성적으로 사람의 기분을 상하게하는 원인 그 성적 학대 소년의 대부분 하지 학대를 저지로 이동.
그러나이 질문에, 여부를 성적으로 학대 한 소년은 성범죄를 저지로 이동합니다, 신중하게 고려해야 가치가 심각한 문제로 남아. Not just because it is important to consider all possible factors that contribute to sexual offending, but also because too often discussions of the ‘victim to offender cycle’ do not adequately explore the impact of uninformed public discussion on the lives of men subjected to sexual abuse.
불행하게도, this particular topic has been characterised by misinformation and overly simplistic treatment. There is a common belief that being sexually abused ‘causes’ a boy to become sexually abusive. 결과적으로, many men who have suffered sexual abuse are faced with often overwhelming fear of ‘becoming a perpetrator.’
It is a telling observation that of all the possible ‘outcomes’ of the sexual abuse of boys (such as depression, 걱정, 플래시백, 관계의 어려움, disturbed sleep, 자살 성향, post trauma distress, etc.) the risk of later sexual offending is one of the most researched.
This page aims to do 3 things
- Summarize the best available research on the relationship between boys’ and men’s experience of sexual victimisation, and factors that can contribute to an individual committing sexual offences.
- Examine the effects and influence of the ‘victim to offender’ idea in the lives of men and boys who have been subjected to sexual abuse.
- Consider concerns related to sexualised behaviour by children who have been sexually abused and the problem of abusive thoughts and fantasies.
We recognise that this web page cannot provide a definitive review of the literature on sexual offending and experiences of victimisation. Nonetheless, we hope to go some way to redressing the absence of consideration of the impact of uncritical acceptance of the ‘victim-to-offender’ idea on the lives of boys and men who have been sexually abused.
1. What does the research say about sexual offending?
So, who actually commits sexual offences? What do these offenders have in common?
그것은 실수, 성적인 위반의 문제를 고려할 때, 즉시 여부 사람의 문제에 초점하려면 성적 학대의 역사를 가지고. 성적 일으키는 연결된 것으로 확인 된 인자의 범위가있다, 이들 중 어떤 것이 가장 중요하다으로 연구자의 사이에 분쟁이있다. 예를 들면, 일부 연구자의 역할을보고 우리를 도전 성별, 그 커밋 성범죄의 압도적 인 다수가 남성이다 주어진, 주위에 80% 소년과 96% 여자의 성적으로 남성에 의해 폭행.
일반적인가, 불안한 경우, 의 역할에 대한 연구에서 발견 남자 다움 성적 위반에. 성적 학대를 저지 남성은 일반적으로 남자와 많은 공통점을 가지고, 과 동일시하는 경향이 전통적인 또는 스테레오 판의 남성의 이상.
또한, 성적 위반을 고려할 때이 같은 고의적 인 성적 문제를 일으키는 사이에 명확한 구분을하는 것이 중요하다 성인, 그리고 아이들이 sexualised 동작이 발생할 또는이 인스턴스는 성적 학대의 자신의 경험의 한 부분으로 다른 아이들을 향해 성적 행동을 강요.
과거를 통해 연구 40 세의 수를 확인했다 위험 요인 즉, 성범죄 커밋 사람의 우도에 기여. 일반 인구에 비해, 아동에 대한 성범죄를 저지 성인 경향:
- 더 큰 침략과 폭력보기, 비폭력 범죄, 분노 / 적대감, 약물 남용, 편집증 / 불신, 및 진단 가능한 반사회적 인격 장애를 가지고.
- 불안을 보여줄 가능성이있을, 불경기, 낮은 자기 존중감, 및 외부의 제어 궤적 (즉. 그들이 통제하지 않은 느낌, 나에 대한 책임, 자신의 행동).
- 일반적으로 더 문제가 성적 패턴을 가지고 (환상과 sexualised 대처 전략을 포함하여).
- 낮은 사회적 기술 / 능력을 가지고, 외로움의 감정을 더보고, 친밀한 관계에 더 어려움, 보안 첨부 파일 및 부족.
- 가족 기능의 빈약 한 역사를 가지고, 더 가혹한 훈련을 포함하여, 가난한 부착 또는 결합, 원산지의 가족의 일반적으로 더 기능, 신체적 학대를 포함, 성적 학대.
- 아동 성적 학대에 더 관대 한 태도를 표현하고 가해자의 과실을 최소화.
우리는 위의 목록에서 볼 수 있듯이, 성적이다 학대 유일한 요인 중 하나로 성적 위반을 조사 할 때 고려해야 할.
사실로, 연구 결과는 성적으로 기분을 상하게 한 대부분의 남자가 있다고 제안 아니 sexually abused.
We will now go on to look specifically at research that examines the cycle of abuse. In doing so, we wish to reiterate that regardless of the questions of personal history, risk factors and questions of gender: Each individual who commits sexual abuse has deliberately chosen to do so. It doesn’t just happen.
What does the research say about the ‘cycle of abuse’ and ‘risk’ of abusing?
There is research suggesting that boys who have been subject to sexual abuse are at higher ‘risk’ of offending later in life than boys who have not.
It is important to understand what is meant by ‘higher risk.’ To say that being sexually abused is a ‘risk factor’ for later offending does not mean it ‘causes’ later offending.
One British study examined the future offending behaviour of boys who had been sexually abused. It found that 88%, the vast majority, did not go on to commit sexual offences.
12% of men who were sexually abused in childhood went on to commit sexual offences. This is a significantly higher rate of sexual abuse perpetrated than by the general population of men, and is a serious concern that needs careful investigation. This is what we mean by risk factor — but it certainly doesn’t mean that men automatically go on to commit abuse. This is demonstrated by the 88% who didn’t.
에 2009, two US researchers published a paper which reviewed 7 studies of the ‘victim-to-offender cycle.’ They focused on males who had been sexually abused in childhood. They looked for factors which increased or decreased the risk of committing a sexual offence (on children of either gender, adolescent and adult women, 또는 두 가지 모두). In general, their findings did not suggest that there is a straightforward relationship between being abused and offending. Presented below in a simplified form are factors identified as increasing risk of offending:
- Masturbation, fantasy, and pleasure connected to abuse.
- Physically abused (in addition to sexual abuse) in childhood.
- Witnessed high/severe levels of violence in childhood family home.
- Sexually abused by both family and non-family abusers.
Some other factors that have been proposed as heightening the risk of offending among boys include: physical abuse, neglect and rejection, witnessing domestic violence in childhood, and other harmful behaviours such as cruelty to animals. Another variable to be aware of is that an appropriate, supportive response at the time of disclosure can diminish the likelihood of future offending behaviour (Wilcox, Richards et al., 2004).
In all cases, the findings are about ‘higher risk,’ not ‘cause and effect’
In noting the evidence that some boys subjected to sexual abuse have committed sexual offences, it is important to not over generalise and treat 모든 boys and men who have been sexually abused as having a potential for future offending. An early review study of the ‘Cycle of child sexual abuse' (commissioned by the United States General Accounting Office at the request of a Committee of the US House of Representatives) found so little evidence to support this idea that they discounted focussing on sexually abused boys as an effective way to prevent future sexual abuse.
There is no doubt that all the above information presents a complicated picture. In a sense, this is helpful because it illustrates that there is no straightforward link between abuse and abusing. There are two clear messages:
Being sexually abused does not cause someone to sexually offend.
The majority of boys who are sexually abused do not go on to commit abuse.
2. The impacts on men of the victim-to-offender idea
Effects on men who were sexually abused
Men who have experienced sexual abuse repeatedly comment on how disturbing the ‘victim to offender’ idea is to them. What we hear, again and again, is an absolute outrage about the horror of child sexual abuse. We hear how distressed they are at the suggestion that they would do something to harm a child.
Counter to this idea, men who have been sexually abused often express a fierce commitment to protecting and caring for children in their life. 그럼에도 불구하고, the ‘victim to offender’ idea is out there in the community.
The idea of the ‘victim-to-offender’ cycle:
- causes distress in its own right. It stops boys and men from disclosing sexual abuse due to the fear of being viewed as a potential offender. Even though he knows he presents no danger, he is likely to be concerned that others, including those close to him, will view him with suspicion.
- has men feeling that they need to be constantly on guard, monitoring their thoughts and behaviours in case they become ‘possessed.’ Men who have been sexually abused report being very much aware of ideas that they might be ‘contaminated’ or experience the ‘vampire effect,’ because of what was done to them.
The suggestion of a secret, hidden desire lurking in the subconscious can lead a person to engage in high level monitoring of their inner world of thoughts and feelings, searching for signs of ‘becoming a potential abuser’ — something that is exhausting and from which there can appear no escape. It is not surprising that men can become caught up in this painful, internal self monitoring, given that ‘hyper vigilance’ of the outer world is already familiar to them, something developed as a child as a means to evade further sexual abuse (through constant monitoring of the environment, of what is being said, the tone used, where people are, awareness of possible danger signs).
The fear of ‘becoming an abuser’ stops sexually abused men from developing intimate relationships, marrying, having children, becoming fully involved in parenting, bathing or changing the nappy of their children, playing with or coming into contact with children, from relaxing, and from trusting in themselves. Here are two men’s accounts of how the victim to offender idea has impacted on their lives:
A man in 30s remembered hearing professionals talking with his family when he was 10 years old, after disclosure of sexual abuse. What stuck with him was their expressed concerns that because he had been abused he would become an abuser. He says ‘Now I think that what I heard about them worrying about me becoming an abuser did as much damage as the abuse itself. I was scared to have kids, in case the monster waiting inside appeared. It was only when I held my daughter that I knew that I was ok. That was 17 years of unnecessary hell in my head.’
A man in his 50s, in a men’s sexual abuse support group, spoke passionately about his commitment to living a life based on not harming or abusing others, and acting to assist people in need. ‘My fear is that, if I get Alzheimers disease or something, I will forget all these things that are important to me. Maybe then ‘it’ will come out and I’ll hurt or abuse someone.’
It is not only the popular media and public myths about male sexual abuse that promotes the victim-to-offender cycle. As in the first quote above, some boys and men have encountered well-meaning professionals who are misinformed about the links between being sexually abused and sexual offending. The research and clinical literature about boys and men who have been sexually abused has not always helped matters, encouraging counsellors and therapists to interact with men who have had unwanted sexual contact as potential abusers (Ouellette, 2009).
The critical psychologists Ruth Miltenburg and Elly Singer published an article in 2000 about the way a lot of psychological research has a problem oriented focus which does not account for the fact that “…despite horrific experiences, many people nevertheless succeed in constructing a satisfactory life for themselves.” They argued that in order to understand how child abuse influences people, 우리가 정말 사람들이 그들의 생활에 그들이 만드는 도덕적 결정에 대해 무슨 말을들을 필요. 무엇 포괄적 인 연구의 대상이되어 있지 않은 것은 어떤 영향을하고 그리고 아이들을 보호하기위한 더 나은 치료에 성적으로 어린 시절에 학대 사람들을 지원합니다.
남자가 고려해 볼 수 있습니다 몇 가지 질문
그 남자의 성적으로 어린 시절에 학대, 그것은 피해자 간 범죄자 생각이 당신의 삶에 영향을 얼마나 고려하는 시간이 좀 걸릴 유용 할 수 있습니다:
- 당신을 위해 걱정의 근원 학대의 두려움을 가지고?
- 당신은 어떻게 당신의 인생에서 어린이를 사용하는 방식에 영향을 남용에 대한 두려움을 가지고? 얼마나 당신이 가까이에 다른 사람들과의 관계에 영향을?
- 당신은 부모 나 보호자 경우, 당신이 친밀한 갖는 얼마나 편안하게 영향을 남용에 대한 두려움을 가지고, 배려, 당신의 아이들을 향한 사랑의 감정? 그렇다면, 방법?
- 당신은 부모가 아닌 경우, 어떤 방식이 결정에 영향을 남용에 대한 두려움을 가지고?
- 이 두려움 요인이 아니었다면 당신은 당신의 관계에서 다르게 행동하는 방법?
- 당신이 아이의 가능성에 대해 걱정하는 경우 학대, 그리고 아이들을 보호하고 피해를 방지하기위한 조치를 취할, 그 무엇을 당신의 의도에 대해 말할 수있다, 사람의 종류에 대해려고 노력하고 있습니다?
- 어떤 값이 아이들이 치료를해야 생각하는 방법의 측면에서 당신에게 중요하다?
- 당신은 더 큰 안전을 증진 방법으로이 값에 따라 행동하는 방법, 신경과 어린이를위한 지원? 이것은 당신이 당신을 학대 한 사람에서 다른 의미하는 방법?
왜이 아이디어는 지속 않습니다?
Given that the evidence is clear that most sexually abused boys do not go on to commit sexual abuse, how can we explain the enduring power and appeal of this idea of a cycle of abuse? Various authors have suggested a few reasons, ...을 포함하여;
- It is a simplistic explanation. Given the complex and frightening realities of child sexual abuse, it is not surprising that a neat, simple ‘circle’ explaining why such shocking things happen is reassuring. It is less confronting than the reality that some people make a deliberate choice to sexually abuse a child.
- It fits neatly in with some old ideas of ‘contamination’ and ‘the vampire bite.’
- If the ‘risk’ is contained to a group of ‘others’ – men who were sexually abused – of which we are not a member, then it is less confronting for us.
- It means not having to confront the cultural conditions that allow child sexual abuse to happen. If sexual abuse can be explained by individual life history, we are not confronted to address more challenging, bigger societal factors, such as trying to explain and address the fact that the majority of sexual offences against children are committed by males.
3. Worries about abusing
Sexualised behaviour as a child
Some men and women remember and express concern that when they were children or young people, they initiated sexually inappropriate or abusive contact with other children after they were sexually abused. Some report that as children or young people they were pressured to do this by the person who offended against them, sometimes threatening, coercing or encouraging them to do this. We have spoken with adults who believe these behaviours ‘prove’ that they are a future risk to others.
It is important to make a distinction between adults deliberately engaging in sexually abusive behaviour and the actions of children or young people. When young people or children experience a sexually traumatic event (which could include an instance of sexual abuse, or living in an abusive environment), it is not uncommon that they ‘act-out’ — what experts call ‘reactive sexualised behaviour.’ Obviously this behaviour can cause great distress and should be taken seriously. 그러나, it is understood that children’s responses to traumatic events can be driven by confusion, distress and impulsive attempts to ‘self-soothe’ (attempting to manage upsetting thoughts and feelings). Trauma-related sexualised behaviour is often short-lived and can be resolved when a child or young person is offered appropriate support (from a counsellor or a responsible adult in their lives).
In contrast, most adults who commit sexual abuse are very deliberate, planned and calculated in how they go about it. While some researchers stress the role of opportunity, sexual abuse is not likely to ‘just happen.’ (The exception to this may be for some people who have a cognitive/intellectual disability which can cause them to act impulsively).
당신은 성적으로 밖으로 행동에 의해 아이로 학대에 반응하는 경우, 이것이 지금 당신에게 큰 고통의 원천이 될 수 있음을 이해할 수있다. 당신이 발생한 감각을 활용할 수 있도록 정보를 카운슬러를 찾는 것도 유용 할 수 있습니다. 그러나, 이 문제는 어린 시절 정지 가정, 그 자체로는 않습니다 아니 당신이 성인으로 지금 성적 범죄를 저지하려는 의미.
생각과 환상 학대 관련
성적으로 어린 시절 보고서에 학대 남성은 sexualised 생각과 환상으로 고민하고, 특히 누군가가 해를 일으키는 원인이 관련. 모두가 환상과 생각을 가지고, 성적 생각 포함. 이러한 생각의 일부는 우리가 건강한 관계에서 즐거움과 성적 즐거움을 느낄 수 있도록. 다른 사람은 당황의 원인이 될 수 있습니다, 부끄러움, 죄, 또는 우려. 불행하게도, there are so many mixed and conflicting messages about sex that even healthy, non-abusive sexual thoughts can cause people distress.
There is a difference between what happens in nightmares and how we behave when awake, between fantasy and reality. We all have thoughts we don’t actually act on. While we do want to challenge the idea that all men who were sexually abused are ‘potential offenders’, we equally don’t want to dismiss anyone who is genuinely worried about their own abusive thoughts and potential for committing sexual abuse. The first thing to say is: If you are making plans to set up a situation to sexually abuse a child or anyone else, seek appropriate help as soon as possible, call a helpline, talk to someone who can assist you.
당신은 학대 sexualised 생각 발생하는 경우, 이런 생각으로 걱정되는 것은 걱정하지 않는 것보다 더 좋은 반응이다. 우리는 위에서 본 것처럼, sexualised 욕설, 비방, 환상 (특히 자위를하는 동안) 남용 커밋에 대한 위험 인자 중 하나가 될 수있다. 그것은 그들에 행동에 당신이 의도가없는 경우에도 고도의 이러한 생각과 환상 방해 가능성과 고통을 것입니다 때문에 당신이 성적으로 학대 한 남자와 작업을 잘 알고있는 사람으로부터 적절한 전문가의 도움을 얻는 것이 중요하다.
- Ouellette, M. (2009). “”몇 가지 더 왼쪽 말하지 있습니다”: 소년의 성적 학대의 담론.(보고서).” 청년: 젊은이, 교과서, 문화 1(1): 67(27).
- Miltenburg, R. 와 E. 가수 (2000). “개념은 열정이됩니다: 도덕적 의무와 아동 학대의 생존자의 정서 발달.” 이론 & 심리학 10(4): 503.
- 리차드, AIC 용지