Statistics

Facts and figures relating to the childhood sexual abuse and sexual assault of males

What is this page about?

Statistics are one way in developing a picture of the extent of the problem of child sexual abuse or sexual assault in our community. They can help us to understand better who is assaulted, where, when, what are potential risk factors and where to direct resources to prevent further childhood sexual abuse or assault and ensure adequate support is available.

The statistics below provide a general snapshot of the reported prevalence, identified characteristics of sexual abuse and sexual assault of males. The statistics provided here are drawn from research studies and Government statistics. A description of common problems that men subjected to sexual violence may experience, can be found in the ‘Managing difficulties’ section of the Living Well website. Details on the under-reporting and barriers to disclosure of child sexual abuse and male sexual assault can be found in the ‘Disclosure’ section. Also more information regarding specific statistics can be found within the References and additional information’ section found at the end of this webpage.

For those unfamiliar with statistics, an extensive discussion of how to read and make sense of statistics relating to the sexual abuse of males can be found at ‘Child Abuse: Statistics, Research and Resources’ http://jimhopper.com/abstats/. In addition, we have included further information on statistical data that can be found in the ‘References and additional information’ section at the end of this webpage[i]. When reading this information it is useful to remember that statistics operate as a general guide; whatever the statistics say, every person will have their own particular story to tell.

Focus on Gender

Although most early studies of child sexual abuse and sexual assault focused on females, there is now a developing body of literature that provides information on the sexual victimisation of males. We have deliberately included some information relating to the sexual abuse of females, as a way of highlighting how gender influences the prevalence, characteristics and experience of sexual abuse or sexual assault.

 

Male Childhood Sexual abuse

Definition

Definitions of child sexual abuse can vary. This variance may be attributed to a variance in legal definitions between countries, or differences in defining acts that amount to child sexual abuse within studies. A simplified definition of child sexual abuse includes: Sexual act/s, including, physical, verbal or visual acts, committed by an adult towards a child.[ii]

 

Prevalence

Research suggests that:

  • Between 1 in 6 and 1 in 10 males are sexually abused before the age of 16[iii]
  • 1 in 4 females are sexually abused before the age of 16[iv]

Prevalence rates can vary, depending on the definition of sexual abuse used and the population participating in the research. For example, reported rates of male childhood sexual abuse range between 3 – 76%. This range takes into account various studies including;

  • 3 – 17% – Systematic review of 55 studies between 2002-2009 from 24 countries not including Australia or New Zealand [v]
  • 8 – 30% – Various international studies, including a meta analysis of 22 countries[vi]
  • 4 – 76%  – Meta analysis of 166 studies of males sexually abused in childhood[vii]
  • 3 – 29% – Analysis of 21 countries[viii]
  • 4 – 31%- Australia study[ix]

 

Prevalence of sexual abuse around the world [x]

Country

Prevalence range

Barbados, Trinidad and Jamaica

40% – 54%

Bangladesh (Rural – Urban)

22% – 37%

Costa Rica

13%

Ethiopia

28%

South Africa

29%

Peru

20%

Cambodia

15%

Indonesia (Rural- Urban- Papua)

6% – 7% – 12%

Papua New Guinea (Bougainville)  

32%

Sri Lanka

14%

China (Urban/Rural)

12%

 

Risk of sexual abuse

Some boys can be more susceptible to sexual abuse. The risk of sexual abuse escalates if a boy [xi];

  • Is a runaway
  • Has a disability
    • Between 4 and 7 times more likely to be sexually abused than a non- disabled peer[xii], [xiii]
  • Is subjected to other forms of maltreatment in the home
  • Comes from an impoverished and/or single-parent family
  • Spends time in a hospital or institutional setting[xiv]
    • Childhood sexual abuse of male Australian prisoners- In a study[xv] of prevalence of childhood sexual abuse of NSW male prisoners, 16% reported being sexually abused as a child; 40% of those reporting sexual abuse as a child were abused before the age of 10.
  • Is indigenous
    • In the “Little Children are Sacred” Report, anecdotal evidence, case studies and submissions suggest that sexual violence in indigenous communities occurs at rates that exceed those of non-indigenous communities[xvi].
    • NSW Government statistics of reported incidents of sexual assault victims between 2000-2004, highlighted that indigenous males experienced sexual abuse from ages 0-15 years, in comparison to indigenous females who were more likely to be abused between ages 11-15 [xvii]  
  • Same sex attracted males
    • Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse is higher among gay and bisexual men than heterosexual men[xviii]

 

Where, when and by whom is child sexual abuse of males likely to occur?

While there are no typical circumstances that boys find themselves in when abused; compared to girls, boys are more likely to be:

  • Abused outside the home[xix]
  • Abused by a stranger[xx]
  • Subjected to extra familial abuse[xxi]
  • Abused around witnesses[xxii]
  • Abused by a female or male and female together[xxiii]
  • Abused by clergy [xxiv]   [xxv]

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Personal Safety Survey 2005[xxvi]

Relationship to the offending person

Male

Female  

Abused by father or step father

6.2%

16.5%

Abused by male relative (not father or stepfather)  

16.4%

35%

Abused by family friend

15.6%

16.5%

Abused by acquaintance, neighbour

16.2%

15.4%

Abused by someone known to them

27.3%  

11%

Abused by a stranger

18.3%

8.6%

 

The 2012 ABS Recorded Crimes – Victims’ Australia [xxvii], highlights the age of offenders when they reported crimes of sexual assault/abuse in 2012. (Note: this pie chart shows age of victims when they reported crimes and may not be indicative of the age of victims when sexual abuse/ assault occurred- see information contained in endnotes on statistical data)

Age at time of reporting sexual assault/abuse

 

Queensland police statistics- 2011-2012 [xxviii]

Queensland police statistics 2011-2012

This shows male were more likely to be victims of sexual assault/abuse between the age of 5-19, similar to the figures shown in the pie chart above.

 

Research suggests that:

  • Over 30% of confirmed reports of child sexual abuse involve male victims.[xxix]
  • Most sexual abuse of males begins before puberty, typically around 10 years[xxx]
  • Boys younger than six are at greater risk of abuse by family and acquaintances[xxxi]
  • Boys older than 12 years face an increased risk of abuse by strangers[xxxii]
  • Risk of sexual assault declines for adult men relative to adult women[xxxiii]
  • Threats of force and physical harm increased with age and male perpetration[xxxiv]

 

Sibling/adolescent perpetrated abuse

Research has shown that sibling incest has been estimated to be at least 5 times more prevalent than parent-child incest.[xxxv]

Female perpetrated sexual abuse

Female perpetrated sexual abuse is thought to be a relatively rare-phenomenon compared to male perpetrated sexual abuse, with research suggesting that 80% of male child sexual abuse is perpetrated by males[xxxvi]. However, studies suggest approximately 2% of females and 20% of males are abused by a female[xxxvii]. In relation to the sexual abuse of males by females research indicates that:

  • Males are less likely to identify sexual contact they had with an adult woman, when they were a child, as sexual abuse.[xxxviii]
  • In over 90% of reported cases, females use persuasion rather than actual or threatened force when committing an offence of sexual abuse.[xxxix]
  • Up to one third of boys who identify as being abused, say curiosity led to their participation in sexual contact with older females[xl].

Comparing male and female experiences

The table below provides a useful snapshot of the prevalence and characteristics of sexual abuse of males and females taken from a large scale study published in 2005.[xli]

 

Type of sexual abuse

Men % (n=7970)  

Women % (n=9367)  

Touched in a sexual way

13.2

22.5

Forced to touch an adult

8.1

7.9

Attempted sexual intercourse

7.3

8.6

Completed sexual intercourse

6.7

5.6

Any type of childhood sexual abuse  

16.0

24.7

Note: Although females are more likely to be sexually abused than males (24.7% to 16% respectively); in this study there are a higher number of males than females reporting ‘completed sexual intercourse’

 

Sex of the perpetrator  

Men % (n=7970)  

Women % (n=9367)  

Male Only

51.0

91.9

Female Only

20.8

2.1

Both male and female

18.3

3.6

Not specified

9.9

2.4

 

Personal Safety Survey 2005[xlii]

The Personal Safety Survey was the first national survey to attempt collection of statistics on a national level regarding the sexual victimisation of males. Prior to this, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) only collected data regarding sexual assaults via the Women’s Safety Survey. The Personal Safety Survey identified:

  • 4.5% of men and 12% of women reported being sexually abused before the age of 15
  • 5.5% of men reported experiencing sexual violence after the age of 15, compared to 19% of women.
  • 0.6% of males and 1.6% of females reported sexual assault or sexual threat in the past 12 months
  • Both men (44%) and women (39%) reported sexual assault by a family member or friend in the most recent incident.
  • Men (33%) were more likely than women (22%) to experience sexual assault by a stranger in the most recent incident.

 

Sexual Assault of Male Adults

Sexual assault in institutional settings

Prison

1 in 4 New South Wales prisoners aged 18-25 years reported being sexually assaulted in prison[xliii] 

Queensland corrective service does not provide statistics of the number of sexual offences that occur in prison in its annual report

Sexual assault in the military

2.1% of men in the United States Air Force reported some form of sexual assault in the previous 12 months[xliv] and 7% of men reported male to male sexual assault in the United States Department of Defense[xlv]

Sexual assault in war zones

There has been a 16% increase in reporting sexual assault in Afghanistan and Iraq according to United States Statistics[xlvi].

Sexual assault of Gay, bisexual and transgender individuals

Approximately 50% of transgendered individuals report unwanted sexual activity within their lifetime[xlvii]

In the Australian Private Lives survey[xlviii]

  • 19.6% of gay identifying men reported being forced to have sex by their partner.
  • 14.3% of transgender males reported being forced to have sex by their partner
  • 25% of intersex males reported being forced to have sex by their partner.

 

Disclosure

Under-reporting of child sexual abuse or sexual assault

One of the difficulties in establishing a picture of the extent and circumstances of childhood sexual abuse and male sexual assault is due to under-reporting. Males are particularly reluctant to report childhood sexual abuse as both a child and adult. 

Evidence suggests that:

  • Boys are less likely than girls to disclose at the time the sexual abuse occurs.[xlix]
  • Between 70-90% of males who have been sexually abused report not telling anyone at the time.[l]
  • Males disclose being sexually abused in childhood on average 22 years after the assault – 10 years later than women [li]
  • Men report first in depth discussion, 28 years after the sexual abuse and first helpful in depth discussion, 30 years after the abuse[lii]
  • Men are more likely than women to make  selective disclosure, to a limited number of people[liii]
  • Men are one and a half times less likely than women to report rape to police[liv].

 

Barriers to disclosure

  • Stigma associated with being sexually abused[lv]
  • Power exercised by those perpetrating abuse through threats, coercion, apportion of  blame[lvi]
  • Silencing effects of fear, confusion and shame[lvii]
  • Dominant masculine stereotypes,
    • Ideas that men should be powerful, strong, able to protect themselves against overwhelming odds, be self reliant, not acknowledge weakness or be unable to cope.
  • Homophobia, questioning of sexuality
    • Concern that he will be considered ‘homosexual’ or ‘gay’ and treated negatively.
  • Uncritical acceptance of the idea that males who have been sexually victimised ‘automatically’ go on to perpetrate abuse[lviii]
    • research indicates that  most males (95%) who have been sexually abused in childhood do not commit offences [lix]
  • Concern they will be treated differently as males and may receive a limited or inadequate response[lx]
  • Sexual abuse remains in some cultures a taboo or something shameful that should be hushed up[lxi]

 

References and additional information

[i]  Cindy Tarczon and Antonia Quadara. 2012. “The nature and extent of sexual assault and abuse in Australia” Australian Institute of Family Studies. Accessed July, 22, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/sheets/rs5/index.html

Administrative data- data that is extracted through systems responding to sexual assault (police, courts, corrections or support services)- this type of data may give a good indication of recorded crime figures but it does not provide a reliable estimate in terms of prevalence, because the majority of victims/survivors do not report sexual assault to police.  There may be inconsistencies between collection and recording of information- across sectors or between sectors and jurisdictions. Also police records they are collected primarily for law enforcement and administration of justice (investigation and case management), statistical and management information  are secondary uses of the data and therefore the whole context of which the offences takes place may not be informed by the data;

Victimization survey data, surveys from sexual assault victims, regardless of them reporting to police.- limitations can include, excluding vulnerable or hard to reach groups, in-depth surveys or interview may be difficult to conduct, possibly due to costs, complexity in collating the data (omitting details not comfortable discussing), possibly bias, interpretation of survey questions and sampling variability.

[ii] Foster, Gary & Cameron Boyd. ca. 2011 “Living Well: A Guide for Men.” http://www.livingwell.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Living-Well-A-Guide-For-Men-Web.pdf

[iii] Dube et al; Dunne, Purdie, Cook, Boyle & Najman cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary. 2012. “Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf.

[iv]  Dube, R.S et al. 2005. “ Long Term Consequences of childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim. American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 28 (5): 430-438.

Although it is recognized  that some studies show a range for the child sexual abuse of females to be around 20-30%:  Finkelhor D cited in. Dube, R.S et al. 2005. “ Long Term Consequences of childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim. American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 28 (5): 430-438, 430.

Also Finkelhor & Dzuiba-Leatherman (2001)  conclude girls are twice as likely to experience sexual abuse, Cited in Smallbone, Stephen et al (2008) “Preventing child sexual abuse: Evidence, policy and practice.” Devon: Willan Publishing.

 Finkelhor (1994) cited in Pereda, Noemi, Georgina Guilera, Maria Forns & Julia Gomez-Benito. 2009. “the prevalence of child sexual assault in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 29: 328-338- suggests prevalence rate for child sexual abuse for women is around 20%.

[v] Barth, J et al. 2013. “The current prevalence of child sexual abuse worldwide: a systematic review and meta analysis. International Journal of public Health, 58 (3):469-483; NOTE- these statistics were based on a systematic review of 55 studies between 2002-2009 from 24 countries- no studies from Australia or new Zealand  due to them mostly using adult samples.

[vi] Goldman and Goldman 1988 cited in Healy, J. 2011. “Children and young people at risk” Issues in society (323): 1-65, 10;

Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Finkelhor, 1979; Watkins & Bentovim, 1992 cited in Scott A Ketring & Leslie L Feinauer 1999, Perpetrator-victim relationship: Long-term effects of sexual abuse for men and women. American Journal of family therapy 27 (2) 109-120, 110.

Pereda, Noemi, Georgina Guilera, Maria Forns & Julia Gomez-Benito. 2009. “the prevalence of child sexual assault in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clincal Psychology Review. 29:328-338;

Fergusson and Mullen, (1999) cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf.

[vii] Holmes, W.C * Slap, G.B. 1998 “Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280 (21) Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[viii] Finkelhor (1994) cited in Pereda, Noemi et al 2009. “The Prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29 (4): 328-338.

[ix] Goldman D.G, Usha K Padayachi. 1997. “The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Queensland, Australia. Child abuse and neglect. 21 (5): 489-498.

[x]  Emma Fulu, Xian Warner, Stephanie Miedema, Rachel Jenkins, Tim Roselli and James Lang, 2013 “Why do some men use violence against women and how can we prevent it?: Quantitative findings from, the United Nations multi-country study on men and violence in Asia and the pacific, Bangkok: UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women and UNV- Note- statistics of Bangladesh, Cambodia, china, Indonesia, PNG  and Sri Lanka.

Alastair Hilton, 2012. “A world of healing.”  Male Survivor International conference- Note-Statistics of Barbados, Trinidad, Jamaica, Costa Rica, Ethiopia and south Africa.

[xi] Crome;, Mitra, Mouradian & Diamand Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[xii] Briggs  cited in  Healy, J. 2011. “Children and young people at risk” Issues in society (323): 1-65, 10;

[xiii] Monika Mitra; Vera Mouradian & Marci Diamond. 2011. ”Sexual Violence Victimization Against Men with Disabilities” American Journal of Preventive Medicine ,  41 (5): 94-497. .

[xiv]  Death, J. 2013. They Did Not Believe Me’: Adult Survivors’ Perspectives of Child Sexual Abuse by Personnel in Christian Institutions. Crime, Justice and Research Centre: Brisbane.

[xv] Butler, T, Basil Donavan, Jillian Fleming, Michael Levy & John Kaldor. 2001. “Childhood sexual abuse amount Australian prisoners.” Venereology. 14 (3): 109-115.

[xvi]  Northern Territory Government. 2007. “Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the protection of Aboriginal Children from sexual abuse” Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.inquirysaac.nt.gov.au/pdf/bipacsa_final_report.pdf.

[xvii]  Attorney generals Department (NSW), 2006, Breaking the Silence: Creating the Future: NSW Aboriginal child sexual assault taskforce, Accessed September 9, 2013. http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/acsat/acsat.nsf/vwFiles/80001%20CP%20Rep-all_sml.pdf/$file/80001%20CP%20Rep-all_sml.pdf

[xviii] Jinich & Slap, 1998; Laumann, Gagnon, Michaels, & Michael, (1993); Paul, Catania, Pollack, & Stall (2001) cited in  Arreola, Sonya et al. 2008. “Childhood sexual experiences and adult health sequelae among gay and bisexual men: defining childhood sexual abuse". The Journal of sex research, 45(3): 246-252.

[xix] Crome, S. 2006. “Male Survivors of Sexual Assault and Rape”. Australian centre for the study of sexual Assault.  Accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/acssa_wrap2.pdf

[xx] Tong, Oates & McDowell (1987); Finkelhor (1990) cited in Scott A Ketring & Leslie L Feinauer. 1999. “Perpetrator-victim relationship: Long-term effects of sexual abuse for men and women” 1997. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 27 (2) 109-120, 112.

Crome 2006 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[xxi] Ogloff, Cutajar, Mann & Mullen 2012 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf;  Crome, S. 2006. “Male Survivors of Sexual Assault and Rape”. Australian centre for the study of sexual Assault.  Accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/acssa_wrap2.pdf

[xxii] Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf;  Hussey, Strom & Singer (1992), Tardiff, Auclair, Jacob & Carpentier (2005) cited in Crome, S. 2006. “Male Survivors of Sexual Assault and Rape”. Australian centre for the study of sexual Assault.  Accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/acssa_wrap2.pdf.

[xxiii] Dube et al. 2005. “ Long-Term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim”. American Journal of preventive medicine., 28 (5), 430-438, 433

[xxiv] Victoria Police Submission to Parliamentary Inquiry: 2012; NOTE- Victoria police investigations of 2110 offences committed by clergy and church workers against 516 victims of which 370 were committed by catholic protests or brothers- 87% of victims were boys aged 11-12.

[xxv] Parkinson et al (2010) cited in  Parkinson, Patrick N, R. Kim Oates & Amanda A. Jayakody (2012). “Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.” Journal of child sexual abuse, 21 (5): 553-570. doi 10.1080/10538712.2012.689424

NOTE-In this study there were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 individuals had more than one complaint made against them.  Sixty-seven percent of complainants were between the ages of 10 to 15 at the time of the alleged first abuse, with 51% being less than 14 years; 11% were under 10 years. Of the 44 cases that were known to go to court, 53% resulted in a conviction.

[xxvi] Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 2005. “Personal Safety Survey. Accessed July 27, 2013. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/056A404DAA576AE6CA2571D00080E985/$File/49060_2005%20(reissue).pdf

[xxvii]  Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 2012. Recorded Crime- Victims Australia. Accessed October 30, 2013. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/E850B8189D9F2A44CA257B88001295CF?opendocument

[xxix] Fergusson, P and E Mullen. 1999. “Childhood sexual abuse: An evidence based perspective”. Sage Publications.

[xxx] Doll et al (1992); Finkelhor et al (1990); Risin & Koss (1987) cited in Holmes & Slap1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xxxi]  Doll et al (1992); Faller (1988); Gordon (1990) cited in Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xxxii] Doll et al (1992); Faller (1988); Gordon (1990) cited in Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xxxiii] Dal Grande, E et al. 1999, cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary. 2012. “Improving policy and practice Reponses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault.

[xxxiv]  Roane (1992); Shrier & Johnson (1988) cited in Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xxxv] Canavan, Meyer & Higgs (1992); Cole (1982); Finkelhor (1980); Smith & Israel (1987) cited in Adler & Schutz. 1995. “Sibling incest offenders” Child Abuse and Neglect, 19 (7): 811-819.

[xxxvi] Dube et al. 2005. “ Long-Term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim”. American Journal of preventive medicine., 28 (5), 430-438.

[xxxvii] Finkelhor and Russells (1984) cited in Tracey Peter, 2009. Exploring taboos: Comparing Male- and female perpetrates child sexual abuse; Journal of interpersonal violence. doi 10.1177/0886260508322194.

[xxxviii] Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862, 1857. doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xxxix]   Hunter et al (1992); Johnson & Shrier (1987); Shrier & Johnson (1988) cited in Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xl] Risin & Koss  (1987) cited in Holmes & Slap. 1998. “Sexual abuse of boys: prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. Journal of American Medical Association. 280 (21): 1855-1862. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.21.1855. Note- this article identified and analysed results of 166 studies from 1985- 1987

[xli] Dube et al. 2005. “ Long-Term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim”. American Journal of preventive medicine., 28 (5), 430-438, 433..

[xliii] Heilpern, D. M (1998). Fear or favour: Sexual assault of young prisoners. Lismore, Southern University Press.

[xliv] Steiger et al (2010), cited in Groves. C. 2013. “Military sexual Assault: An Ongoing and prevalent problem”. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 23 (6): 747-752. doi- 10.1080/10911359.2013.795064.

[xlv] Department of Defense ( 2010)  cited in Groves. C. 2013. “Military sexual Assault: An Ongoing and prevalent problem”. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 23 (6): 747-752. doi- 10.1080/10911359.2013.795064.

[xlvi] Department of Defense ( 2010) cited in Groves. C. 2013. “Military sexual Assault: An Ongoing and prevalent problem”. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 23 (6): 747-752. doi- 10.1080/10911359.2013.795064

[xlvii] Stotzer (2009)  cited in Gentlewarrior, Sabrina. 2009. “Culturally Competent service provision to Lesbian, gay, Bisexual and Transgender survivors of sexual violence”. Applied Research Forum. Accessed August 26, 2012

[xlviii] Pitts, Marian, Anthony Smith, Anne Mitchell & Sunil Patel. 2006. “ Private lives A Report on the Health and Wellbeing of GLBTI Australians” Australian research centre in sex, health and society, La Trobe University, p51. http://www.glhv.org.au/files/private_lives_report_0.pdf.

[xlix] O’Leary & Barber (2008) cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf;  O’Leary & Barber (2008) cited in Scott D Easton 2012. Disclosure of child sexual abuse among adult male survivors, Clinical Social Work Journal. doi 10.1007/s10615-012-0420-3.

[l] Holmes & Slap (1998) cited in Scott D Easton 2012. Disclosure of child sexual abuse among adult male survivors, Clinical Social Work Journal, doi 10.1007/s10615-012-0420-3.

[li]  Holmes & Slap (1998); O'Leary and Barber; 2008; O'Leary and Gould, 2009 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lii]  Easton, S. D. 2012. “Disclosure of child sexual abuse among adult male survivors” Clinical Social Work Journal. Doi 10.1007/s10615-012-0420-3- NOTE- used sample of 487 men who had been sexually abused as children to look at disclosure.

[liii] Hunter, 2011 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of sexual assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[liv] (Pino and Meier (1999) cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lv]  Dorahi & Clearwater 2012 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lvi] Dorahi & Clearwater (2012) cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lvii] Dorahi & Clearwater 2012 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lviii] Sorsoli, Kia-Keating & Grossman 2008; Washington 1999 cited in Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lix] Ogloff et al 2012 cited  Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lx] O’Leary & Barber 2008 cited in  Foster, Boyd & O’Leary, 2012, Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood”. Australian centre for the Study of Sexual Assault. Accessed August 5, 2013. http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf

[lxi] Sorsoli, L., Kia-Keating, M., & Grossman, F. K.2008. “I keep that hush-hush”: Male survivors of sexual abuse and the challenges of disclosure”. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 55(3), 333–345.

Living Well would like to express our thanks to Sophie Williams from Queensland University of Technology, School of Justice for assistance in creating this page and video.

 

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